Pallidal Stimulation for Dystonia


What is Dystonia ?



Pre and post video of dystonia patient

Name :- Surender


Dystonia is a movement disorder that causes the muscles to contract and spasm involuntarily. The involuntary muscle contractions force the body into repetitive and often twisting movements as well as awkward, irregular postures.


Dystonia may affect a single body area or be generalized throughout multiple muscle groups. Dystonia affects men, women, and children of all ages and backgrounds.


Dystonia causes varying degrees of disability and pain, from mild to severe. There is presently no cure, but multiple treatment options exist and scientists around the world are actively pursuing research toward new therapies.


Dystonia is a chronic disorder, but the vast majority of dystonias do not impact cognition, intelligence, or shorten a person's life span. The main exception to this is dystonia that occurs as symptom of another disease or condition that can cause such complications.



Forms of Dystonia


Focal dystonia it involve a focal group of muscle only




Dystonia that affects the muscles of the eyelids and brow…Normally responds to Botox injection and medications.


Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis)


Dystonia that affects the neck and sometimes the shoulders.. Responds to Botox injection and if not controlled Deep brain stimulation of Globus pallidus or subthalamus is good alternative.


Hand dystonia (writer's cramp)


Dystonia of the fingers, hand, and/or forearm. Respond to botox injection...


Generalized Dystonia


Early-onset generalized dystonia is characterized by the twisting of the limbs, specifically the foot and leg or hand and arm.

The spasms may spread to involve twisting contractions of other parts of the body.Early-onset generalized dystonia is characterized by the twisting of the limbs and torso.

They have genetic pattern and runs in family.

Respond to medications but if not controlled then Pallidal deep brain stimulation is a good alternative


Dopa-responsive Dystonia


A group of dystonias that respond to a medication called levodopa.


Secondary dystonia are secondary to some other disorder like trauma, Wilson disease etc. These are treated by treating the cause. They are not the good candidate for deep brain stimulation